Process in which the components of a substance or liquid mixture are separated by heating it to a certain temperature and condensing the resulting vapors. Some substances (such as crude oil) have components that vaporize at different temperatures and thus can be separated by. Distillation is the technique of heating a liquid to create vapor which is collected when cooled separate from the original liquid. It's based on the different boiling point or volatility values of the components. The technique may be used to separate components of a mixture or to aid in purification. Distillation definition: the act, process, or product of distilling | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples.


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Distillation definition water is purified by distillation, it is boiled in a container, and the steam is sent into cooling tubes. The steam is condensed and then collected as purified water in a second container. The impurities in the water are left behind in the first container and can be discarded.

The latter two are distinctively different from the former two in that distillation is not used as a true purification method but more to transfer all volatiles from the source materials to the distillate in the processing of beverages and herbs.

The main difference between laboratory scale distillation and industrial distillation is that laboratory scale distillation is often performed on a batch basis, whereas industrial distillation often distillation definition continuously. In batch distillation distillation definition, the composition of the source material, the vapors of the distilling compounds, and the distillate change during the distillation.

In batch distillation, a still is charged supplied with a batch of feed mixture, which is then separated into its component fractions, which are collected sequentially from most volatile to less volatile, with the bottoms — remaining least or non-volatile fraction — removed at the end.

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The still can then be recharged and the process repeated. In continuous distillationthe source materials, vapors, and distillate are kept at a constant composition by carefully replenishing the source material and removing fractions from both distillation definition and liquid in the system.


This results in a more detailed control of the distillation definition process. Idealized distillation model[ edit ] The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure around the liquid, enabling bubbles to form without being crushed.

A special case is the normal boiling pointwhere the vapor pressure of the liquid distillation definition the ambient atmospheric pressure.

It is a common misconception that in a liquid mixture at a given pressure, each component boils at the boiling point corresponding to the given pressure, allowing the vapors of each component to collect separately and purely.

However, this does not occur, even in an idealized system. Idealized models of distillation are essentially governed by Raoult's law and Dalton's law and assume that vapor—liquid equilibria are attained. Raoult's law states that the vapor pressure of a solution is dependent on 1 the vapor pressure of each chemical component in the solution and 2 the fraction of solution each component makes up, a.

This law applies to ideal solutionsor solutions that have different components but whose distillation definition interactions are the same distillation definition or very similar to pure solutions.

Distillation | chemical process |

Dalton's law states that the total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures of each individual component in the mixture. When a multi-component liquid is heated, the vapor pressure of each component will rise, thus causing the total vapor pressure to rise.

When the total vapor distillation definition reaches the pressure surrounding the distillation definition, boiling occurs and liquid turns to gas throughout the bulk of the liquid.

Note distillation definition a mixture with a given composition has distillation definition boiling point at a given pressure when the components are mutually soluble.

A mixture of constant composition does not have multiple boiling points. An implication of one boiling point is that lighter components never cleanly "boil first". At boiling point, all volatile components boil, but for a component, its percentage in the vapor is the same as its percentage of the total vapor pressure.

Lighter components have a higher partial pressure and, thus, are concentrated in the vapor, but heavier volatile components also have a smaller partial pressure and necessarily vaporize also, albeit at a lower concentration in the distillation definition.