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Pros PDF is the most widely used electronic document format worldwide. It's entirely independent of the operating system and hardware of the device viewing it, meaning that PDFs look the exact same on every device.

PDFs are xml tutorial pdf e-books novels great for customization since you have complete control over the layout and fonts. You can make the document look however you see fit. They can also be generated extremely easily without much work at all, often via GUI-based tools from a number of companies beyond Adobe.

Conversion of PDF files to a web-friendly format is difficult as well.

Plain text's strength is its simplicity and portability. The structural descriptors that it lacks can be encoded into plain text files using markup. Unix-based operating xml tutorial pdf e-books novels, particularly, place much of their configuration information within plain text files, thus making a text editor an essential system administration tool.

Viewing Software As above, text editors, either supplied with operating systems or acquired separately, are the main means of viewing plain text files.

UNIX-based systems encode a line-break with a single ASCII linefeed character code 10DOS systems encode line breaks by the combination of the carriage return and the linefeed character code 13 followed by code 10while Apple Macintosh computers encode line breaks with just the carriage return character code While the majority of text editors on these systems attempt to identify this incompatibility and convert files automatically where xml tutorial pdf e-books novels, this difference in approach can still lead to problems.

For example, even in the current version of Notepad included in Windows XP single linefeed characters are not displayed as breaks, and Unix-originating text runs together. Unicode provides a single xml tutorial pdf e-books novels break character and a separate paragraph character, as well as containing the legacy control codes it has inherited from ASCII.

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For example, Microsoft created various 8-bit character 'code pages' to accompany versions of Xml tutorial pdf e-books novels sold outside the US. Code pages for languages with more than characters were encoded using a double byte coding scheme, where two bytes encode one character.

The problem with these 'code pages' is that they are specific to the platform they were designed for, and conform to no other general scheme. Text editors can attempt to discern which code page a xml tutorial pdf e-books novels is encoded in, and display it correctly, but this is a complex and inelegant solution.

Later versions of both Windows and Mac OS use Unicode to encode characters for all regions, thus eliminating the problem for newly generated texts. Unicode is more complex, in that a single character can be represented by anything up to five bytes.

The Unicode consortium provides a series of specifications for how the encoding of Unicode characters should be undertaken by programmers, with schemes that involve the use of single byte sequences UTF-8paired byte sequences UTF and four byte sequences UTF Different programming languages use differing encoding schemes for their storage of textual data; for example the multi-platform development language Java uses UTF as its native textual storage format.

Repurposing Due to its simplicity ASCII text is easily converted into other formats, as long as attention is paid to the mapping of line breaks as mentioned above.

Care must also be taken to check for proprietary extensions: Clearly all such xml tutorial pdf e-books novels need to be identified and correctly mapped. Unicode texts are readily portable into most modern text-handling software, particularly as the text-handling in the current versions of both Windows and MacOS is Unicode-based.

Because document structure is not encoded in any systematic way for example a paragraph might be indicated by many different combinations of carriage returns, line feeds and tabs, with variations even within one document it is not easy to fully convert plain text documents into more structured formats such as XML without dedicating a lot of time to xml tutorial pdf e-books novels structure.

In the late s, IBM were designing a document management system for use by lawyers which would facilitate creation, storage and retrieval.

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The work required the integration of several existing software solutions, each of which implemented their own control codes within the document. In one program, the control codes would encode presentation information such as xml tutorial pdf e-books novels text was a heading and which words should be italicised.

In another, they would mark areas of the text which represented topics and areas that were appropriate for indexing.